Concrete Pavement Design, Construction, and Performance

Concrete Pavement Design, Construction, and Performance
Concrete Pavement Design, Construction, and Performance

Concrete Pavement Design, Construction, and Performance
Second Edition
Norbert J. Delatte

Concrete Pavement Design, Construction, and Performance
Concrete Pavement Design, Construction, and Performance

Preference :

In the years since the first edition was published, there have been a number of changes in concrete pavement technology. Some approaches are now less used. Other topics have become more important and required new chapters, such as sustainability, the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide for highways, and pervious concrete and roller compacted pavements. All other chapters have been thoroughly reviewed, and trimmed to make room for new material. I hope that this work will continue to be of value to students, professors, researchers, and practicing engineers.

Content

Preface to the second edition xix
Acknowledgments xxi
Author xxiii
1 Introduction
The beginnings
Early road tests
AASHO road test
Evolution of design
Long-Term Pavement Performance program
Economy, service life, and life cycle costs
Challenges for the future
Maintenance and rehabilitation
Meeting congestion and safety challenges
Sources for information, research reports, guidelines, and standards
Highways
Airports
Changes from the first edition
2 Types of concrete pavements
Jointed plain concrete pavement
Jointed reinforced concrete pavement
Continuously reinforced concrete pavement
Conventional pavement joints
Transverse contraction joints
Longitudinal joints
Construction joints
viii Contents
Expansion or isolation joints
Overlays
Prestressed and precast concrete pavement
Prestressed pavement
Precast pavement panels
Roller-compacted concrete
Pervious/porous concrete
3 Sustainability of concrete pavements
Life cycle analysis
Designing sustainable concrete pavements
Sustainable concrete pavement materials
Recycling and reuse of materials
Concrete pavements in service
Life cycle assessment
Sustainability rating systems
4 Performance
Distress categories
Cracking
Corner breaks
Durability (“D”) cracking
Longitudinal cracking
Transverse cracking
Joint deficiencies
Joint seal damage (transverse or longitudinal)
Joint spalling (transverse or longitudinal)
Surface defects
Map cracking
Scaling
Polished aggregates
Popouts
Miscellaneous distresses
Blowups
Faulting of transverse joints and cracks
Lane-to-shoulder dropoff
Lane-to-shoulder separation
Patch deterioration
Water bleeding and pumping
Contents ix
Punchouts
Transverse construction joint deterioration
Surface characteristics
Smoothness
Skid resistance
Noise
5 Subgrades, subbases, and drainage
Subgrades
Expansive subgrade soils
Frost susceptible subgrade soils
Subbases and bases
Stabilized bases
Selection of stabilized subbase/base type
Friction and bond breakers
Surface drainage
Subdrainage
Subdrainage design
Quantifying water inflow
Designing the permeable base
Designing the separation layer
Side drains
Retrofit edge drains
6 Selection of concrete materials
Cement
Supplementary cementitious materials
Fly ash
Slag cement
Other supplementary cementitious materials
Aggregates and water
Coarse aggregate
Fine aggregate
Optimized combined aggregate grading
Lightweight aggregate
Waste materials as aggregates
Water
Admixtures
Air entraining admixtures
x Contents
Accelerating admixtures
Set-retarding admixtures
Water-reducing admixtures
Compatibility of materials
Fiber reinforcement
7 Mixture design and proportioning
Workability
Strength
Durability
Freeze–thaw durability
Scaling
Sulfate attack
Corrosion of reinforcement and dowel bars
Shrinkage and thermal deformation
Mixture proportioning example
Large size coarse aggregate
Normal size coarse aggregate
Batch adjustments for aggregate moisture condition
Batch adjustments for supplementary cementitious materials
Batch adjustments for water-reducing admixtures
Accelerated construction
Overnight construction
Weekend construction
Durability of EOT concrete
8 Design fundamentals
Pavement support
Traffic
Single vehicle
Mixed traffic stream
Axle equivalency (ESAL) concept
Curling and warping stresses
Traffic loading stresses and deflections
Stresses from corner loading
Stresses from edge loading
Stresses from interior loading
Combining stresses from curling, warping, and traffic loading
Slab deflections
Contents xi
General stress and deflection calculation
from finite element programs
Thickness design
Transverse joint design and spacing
Joint spacing
Variable joint spacing
Aggregate interlock joints
Doweled joints
Dowel bar diameter
Skewed joints
Longitudinal joints and tie bar design
9 Highway pavement design
AASHTO 1993 Design Guide
Design inputs
Traffic in ESALs W18
Reliability ZRS0
Initial and terminal serviceability po, pt, ΔPSI
Flexural strength of concrete Sc′
Drainage coefficient Cd
Load transfer coefficient J
Concrete modulus of elasticity Ec
Modulus of subgrade reaction k
Solution methods
Design example
AASHTO 1998 Supplement
Design inputs
Design examples
PCA 1984 design
Design criteria
Design inputs
10 Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide
Background, scope, and overview
Design inputs
Subgrade/foundation design inputs
Material characterization
Environmental effects
Traffic
xii Contents
Evaluation of existing pavements for rehabilitation
Design analysis
Drainage
Shoulders
Design of new and reconstructed rigid pavements
Rehabilitation strategies
PCC rehabilitation design
Low-volume road design
Software design examples
JPCP design example
CRCP design example
JPCP restoration design example
Unbonded JPCP overlay on existing JPCP design example
Software licensing fees
11 Light-duty pavement design
ACI 325.12R and ACI 330 design guides
Typical design features
Traffic characterization
Joint layout
ACPA StreetPave design software
Global settings
Project-level inputs
Traffic inputs
Pavement properties
Existing and new pavement analysis
Life cycle cost
Design examples
Light traffic pavement design tables
Concrete intersections
Short, thin slab pavements
12 Pervious concrete pavements
Pervious concrete constituents and mixtures
Aggregates
Water content and water/cementitious materials ratio
Admixtures
Pervious concrete properties
Reservoir layer
Contents xiii
Closed systems or miniature storm water detention systems
Cold weather considerations
Dry freeze and hard dry freeze
Wet freeze
Hard wet freeze
Combination design
ACPA PerviousPave design software
Global settings and project information
Pervious concrete pavement structural design
Project-level inputs
Traffic inputs
Pavement structural properties
Pervious concrete pavement hydrological design
PerviousPave hydrological design
PCA CD hydrological design
Considerations for sloping pavements
Design examples
Pervious pavement design tables
Pervious concrete pavement construction
Pervious concrete pavement performance
13 Airport pavement design
Airport pavement bases and subbases
Design considerations
Aircraft traffic loading
Design for frost and permafrost
Determining foundation modulus (k-value)
Determining concrete slab thickness
Critical and noncritical areas
Jointing
Reinforced and CRC pavements
Airfield pavement design software
Airport pavement overlays and reconstruction
Design examples
Airport pavements for light aircraft
14 Industrial pavement design
Industrial pavement traffic and loads
Concrete and subgrade considerations
xiv Contents
Joint design considerations
Conventional industrial pavement design
Industrial pavement design examples (RCCPave and AirPave)
Design example 1: container handler
Design example 2: mobile gantry crane
Industrial pavement case study
15 Roller-compacted concrete pavements
RCC materials and mixtures
Materials
Mixtures
Engineering properties of RCC
Compressive and flexural strength
Modulus of elasticity and fatigue performance
Bond strength between lifts
Resistance to freezing and thawing and scaling
Shrinkage
RCC pavement design
RCC pavement construction
Materials production
Subgrade and subbase preparation
Paving
Compaction
Joints
Curing
RCC pavement surface
RCC pavement performance
Surface texture and condition
Joints and cracks
Load transfer at joints
Surface smoothness
Freeze/thaw and deicer scaling resistance
RCC pavement case studies
Georgia I-285 shoulder reconstruction project
Norfolk International Terminal RCC port facility expansion
16 Transitions and CRCP reinforcement
Transitions
Transitions between concrete pavements and bridges
Transitions between concrete and asphalt pavements
Contents xv
Design considerations for CRCP
Thickness design for CRCP
CRCP steel design for highways: AASHTO 1993
Steel percentage based on crack spacing
Steel percentage based on crack width
Steel percentage based on steel stress
CRCP transverse reinforcement
Design example
MEPDG approach
CRCP highway field performance
CRCP steel design for airports: FAA
Steel to resist subgrade restraint
Steel to resist temperature effects
Concrete to steel ratio
Transverse steel
Design example
CRCP reinforcement and end anchors
Reinforcement details
End anchors and terminal joints
Transverse construction joints
Seamless pavement: case study
17 Subgrade and subbase construction
Grade preparation
Subgrade grading and compaction
Controlling expansive soils
Controlling frost heave
Subgrade stabilization
Other subgrade considerations
Subbase and base construction
Untreated subbases
Cement-treated subbases and bases
Lean concrete subbases and bases/econocrete
Asphalt-treated subbases and bases
Permeable bases
Issues with stabilized bases
18 Paving
Concrete production considerations
Slipform paving
xvi Contents
Fixed-form paving
Planning and troubleshooting
Accelerated concrete pavement construction
Maturity testing
19 Finishing, texturing, curing, and joint sawing and sealing
Finishing and texturing
Curing
Factors affecting curing requirements
Initial curing
Final curing
Temperature management
Termination of curing and evaluation of effectiveness
Considerations for thin overlays
Joint sawing and sealing
Hot- and cold-weather paving and curing precautions
Hot-weather precautions
Cold-weather precautions
Large ambient temperature drops
HIPERPAV
20 Concrete pavement maintenance
Pavement management
Joint and crack resealing
Joint resealing
Crack sealing
Maintenance of drainage systems
21 Rehabilitation
Selecting maintenance and overlay strategies
Full- and partial-depth repairs
Full-depth repair patches
Partial-depth repair patches
Dowel bar retrofit and cross-stitching
Retrofitting dowel bars
Cross-stitching
Grinding and grooving
Slab stabilization
Contents xvii
22 Overlays and inlays
Concrete overlays of concrete pavements
Unbonded overlays
Bonded concrete overlays
Concrete overlays of asphalt pavements
Whitetopping overlays
Ultrathin whitetopping overlays/bonded
concrete overlays of asphalt
Thin whitetopping overlays
Concrete inlays
Bibliography

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