To an average person, deep excavation might conjure up thoughts of massive deep open cast gold mines. These can take dozens of years to excavate with more than a million tonnes of earth removed in one day. The largest of these goes down 700m, deep enough to accommodate a 230-floor tower without appearing above the original ground level, nearly as big as Burj Khalifa (829.8m) and more than Tokyo Skytree (634m) and Shanghai Tower (632m). Such deep excavations for mining rock ore are generally in undeveloped terrain. Engineering for deep open cast mines requires substantial input from rock mechanics engineers. Deep excavations in soil are generally not as deep as open cast mines and necessitate much more gentle slopes or retaining walls to hold up the sides.
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